Tag Archives: Investment Banking

Understanding The Stock Market

So, understanding the stock market…OK…what the heck is the stock market anyways?

The basic function of the stock market is to provide capital resources for corporations that seek capital to expand their operations and finance their growth.

If you make your money available to theses companies, you help them expand and prosper.

Companies that issue stock shares to the public are considered “publicly held” or “publicly traded” companies. Stock shares represents ownership of a corporation. As a shareholder, an investor owns a portion of the company’s assets and profits.

With ownership comes risk and a shareholder assume the primary risk if a business does poorly. However, they also stand to make the greatest return if it succeeds. If he is smart, the shareholder would be wise to be understanding the stock market too.

When an entrepreneur starts a company, he often looks to family and friends for start-up capital. As the company grows, it will need more money, or in other words capital. Those who survive those tough early years, when most businesses fail, will look for a bank loan.

Loans carry high cash costs, in the form of interest payments. Eventually, if the company grows enough, its owners may choose to issue stock shares in the public markets. Understanding the stock market is very important to know for these entrepreneurs.

When you hear that a company is “going public”, it means that the company is issuing shares of ownership for sale in the public marketplace. This process takes place during the initial public offering, or IPO.

The IPO is a first-time offering of stock for sale to the general public. The IPO process involves a number of people in addition to the company owners, and can be a rather complex undertaking. The company itself must be clear in understanding the stock market.

To go public and issue an IPO, the company must use and find an Investment Banking firm that is willing to underwrite the public offering. The Investment Banking firm, or underwriter, will do their best to sell the shares. They may reserve the right to sell the offering on an all or none basis, which means that if they cannot find buyers for all the shares to be issued, they may call off the entire offering.

The underwriters profit in this case is made by a commission charged for selling the stock. If the underwriter agrees to a firm commitment to sell the entire offering, usually the first move is to buy all the shares that are going to be publicly offered at an agreed-upon price.

The underwriter then attempts to sell those shares to the public for a higher price, thus profiting from the transaction.Stock Classification There are two classifications of stock:

Common and Preferred.

Common stock is usually what is issued to the general public. The term common Stock doesnt carry any negative connotations, but rather indicates that it is the “standard” stock the company has offered. Common shareholders have voting rights.

The Most Popular Job Roles In Finance

There is a plethora of jobs in the finance industry. Many finance jobs are centered around several primary professions such as commercial banking and investment banking. Naturally the most common jobs fall within those two categories. Currently, the more popular of the two is investment banking. Consequently, the most popular job roles in finance are positions in the investment banking arena.

Industry coverage is a large area covered by investment bankers who specialize in product groups such as utilities, aerospace, real estate, etc. This group has a group of senior bankers called Managing Directors which are backed by Directors, Vice Presidents and Associates. The managing director will help strategize the next move for the group as it grows and the team usually recruits new graduates into this group quite aggressively.

Corporate finance is an area with the primary function of raising money for corporate ventures. As an analyst in this group, you would be responsible for preparing registrations and attend road shows where investors are sold securities. Debt Capital Markets or Equity Capital Markets originate new issues of bonds or securities. They advise about the best time to issue these new debts or equities. Mergers and Acquisitions is yet another department which is under investment banking. Mergers and acquisitions generate fee income for investment banks. The bank sets up the acquisition even under market conditions that would make the acquisition unfavorable through creative methods that benefit all parties and the bank gets paid handsomely for their effort.

Project Finance help fund the infrastructure of a government or oil capital project, generally funneling funds from one foreign country to another when other options for borrowing have dried up. Trading is a job with which most of us are familiar. It is sales of securities on the stock market floor or from an office. Structured finance, derivatives, advisory, equity and fixed income research and international sales and emerging markets are other jobs that can be performed in investment banking.

Public finance, retail brokerage or stockbroker, institutional sales and ratings analyst are the remaining positions in investment banking. Many of these jobs are more glamorous than the others, but they all pay well. The most popular job roles in finance include any position in investment banking which comes with a hefty salary and many also pay bonuses. Commission often accompanies any position that generates sales to compensate for performance. Ratings analysts command an average annual salary of 68,000 with an average of 5,000 in bonuses. An exceptional employee should expect a higher salary. A managing director in Industry Coverage can command a salary of 130,000 to 220,000 annually. The job you pursue in Investment Banking will be your personal choice. Your compensation will be excellent and hopefully, you will find a home based on your talent and interests.